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Past Research

Past projects conducted by LCIRT researchers

  • The Landmark College Institute for Research and Training (LCIRT) has partnered with the Dartmouth Autism Research Initiative (DARI) run by Dr. Caroline Robertson to gather behavioral testing data from autistic participants while they perform a battery of visual tests using virtual reality goggles. The aim of this project is to collect empirical measures to gain a deeper understanding of how Autistic people process and remember visual information. A Landmark College student is serving as an undergraduate research assistant for this project.

    Landmark College Researchers: Dr. Rick Bryck and Dr. Adam Lalor


  • Screenshot image from the UniVRSal research projectLCIRT is collaborating with Cambridge, Massachusetts-based nonprofit TERC, which received a $750,000 National Science Foundation grant to improve STEM-based learning for students with autism. The project uses virtual reality (VR) technology to increase access and broaden participation by students with autism in learning in STEM fields. LC’s involvement will largely take place in the first year of the project. Dr. Manju Banerjee is working with LC students and TERC partners to help develop the prototype of a VR STEM-learning experience called Mission to Europa Prime. Students will co-design puzzles and user interfaces that support learners with sensory, attention and social issues that will eventually be expanded into a full, immersive STEM-based mystery game. The participatory design process will ensure the VR experience is designed to reduce barriers that currently exclude learners with autism and related conditions from many informal learning opportunities. Each student is receiving $500 per semester for their participation in the design of the game.

  • The Landmark College Institute for Research and Training (LCIRT) is collaborating with researchers from the University of Connecticut, the University of South Florida, and the AHEAD national office to conduct studies to update the AHEAD Professional Standards and Code of Ethics. AHEAD is the primary professional association for postsecondary disability services professionals and has an international membership. To update the AHEAD Professional Standards, the Delphi method is being used to bring a group of experts in the field to consensus on standards important to disability services work. To update the AHEAD Code of Ethics, a focus group is being used to collect perspectives on ethical statements critical to the work of disability services professionals.

    Landmark College Researcher: Dr. Adam Lalor

  • The Landmark College Institute for Research and Training (LCIRT) is collaborating with the UMASS-Amherst Psychology and Education departments to examine the use of visuals to teach Bayesian statistics to neurodiverse learners. Landmark College students are being recruited to participant in a research study. Participants view a presentation from a UMASS researcher where statistical probability problems are demonstrated. During some of the problems, a novel, visual method for solving the probability questions is shown. Participants are asked to both solve problems and explain their reasoning during their problem-solving process. The novel visual solution is hypothesized to be a more universal way of accessing complex statistical reasoning.

    Landmark College Researchers: Dr. Rick Bryck and Dr. Adam Lalor

  • The role of disability documentation in establishing eligibility for disability status, special education services, and accommodations has waxed and waned in the last two decades. At one time, referral for evaluation and the resulting disability documentation were essential prerequisites in establishing special education services and accommodations. Appropriate documentation describing the disability resulted in legal protections (National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities, 2007). Without this documentation, individuals were ineligible for a host of work-related and educational accommodations and support services. But now legal, research-based, and educational perspectives are informing a new approach to the use and importance of disability documentation. This article presents critical and differing perspectives which build on observed trends and practices in disability documentation requirements and accommodation decision-making.

    Landmark College Researchers: Dr. Manju Banerjee and Dr. Adam Lalor

  • Websites of disability services offices in postsecondary institutions serve as an outward facing platform for disability related policies and protocols. Thus, these sites are an important source of information for current students, as well as prospective students and their parents. This is especially true in regard to requirements related to disability documentation, which can serve as the foundation for accommodation decisions. The present study examined disability documentation information on the websites of 299 postsecondary institutions, split evenly across doctoral, master’s, baccalaureate and associate institutions. While 89% of the schools mentioned disability documentation, there was variation in regard to the specific guidelines used, documentation recency expectations, and how students are expected to request and access services. Implications are addressed for both disability services personnel and students seeking services.

    Landmark College Researchers: Dr. Manju Banerjee and Dr. Adam Lalor

  • Revealing the Invisible: Data-Intensive Research to Optimize STEM Learning (2014 – 17)

    Landmark College, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Technical Education Research Centers (TERC) were awarded a $1.16 million National Science Foundation (NSF-DIR) grant titled “Revealing the Invisible: Data-Intensive Research Using Cognitive, Psychological, and Physiological Measures to Optimize STEM Learning.”


    Title: “Revealing the Invisible: Data-Intensive Research Using Cognitive, Psychological, and Physiological Measures to Optimize STEM Learning.” National Science Foundation logo (image of earth with letters NSF)
    Funder: National Science Foundation
    Award Number: 1417456
    Total Award Amount: $1.16 million
    Landmark College Award Amount: $270,363
    Funding Period: 2014 – 2017
    PIs: Dr. Ibrahim Dahlstrom-Hakki (Award# 1417456), Dr. Micah Altman of MIT (Award# 1418122), Dr. Jodi Asbell-Clarke of TERC (Award# 1417967))
    Co-PI: Dr. Elizabeth Rowe of TERC
    Research Associate: Dr. Zachary Alstad

    Project Summary

    Dr. Ibrahim Dahlstrom-Hakki, a research and education specialist with the Landmark College Institute for Research and Training (LCIRT), will lead this two-and-a-half-year research initiative as the principal investigator from Landmark College, together with Dr. Micah Altman of MIT and Dr. Jodi Asbell-Clarke of TERC. This research project will study ways to measure how and when students learn basic physics concepts while playing an educational digital game called Impulse. The research will include students with and without ADHD and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Patterns of play and eye-tracking data will be used to assess what students know and when they know it, and to allow the game to adapt in real time to improve student learning.

    “This project is important because it can help us understand how best to teach those students who struggle the most in mainstream learning environments,” said Dahlstrom-Hakki. “If we can develop more effective ways of helping them learn, then we will improve outcomes for all struggling students.”

    Dr. Dahlstrom-Hakki is an expert in eye tracking analysis methodologies and together with Dr. Zachary Alstad will work with participants at Landmark College. Dr. Micah Altman of MIT is an accomplished computer scientist and expert of big data analysis which will be necessary for exploring the vast amount of data this study will produce. Furthermore, Dr. Jodi Asbell-Clarke and Dr. Elizabeth Rowe of TERC have extensive experience in development of educational games and analysis of complex player behavior. The combination of these strengths allows this team to address the unique challenges presented by this problem space.

    You can find out more about the educational game Impulse on the game maker’s website.


    National Science Foundation logo (image of earth with letters NSF)

    This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1417456

    Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.


  • Synchronous Versus Asynchronous On-Line Discussions for Students with Disabilities (2014 – 17)

    Landmark College students and professor at table working on laptopsLCIRT has received a $486,970 National Science Foundation (NSF-REAL) award for a proposal entitled "Social Presence During Instructor Mediated Synchronous Versus Asynchronous On-Line Discussions: A Study of Undergraduate Students with Disabilities Learning Statistics."


    Title: "Synchronous Versus Asynchronous On-Line Discussions for Students with Disabilities”National Science Foundation logo (image of earth with letters NSF)
    Funder: National Science Foundation
    Award Number: 1420198
    Award Amount: $486,970
    Funding Period:  2014 – 2017 
    PI:  Dr. Ibrahim Dahlstrom-Hakki
    Co-PI:  Dr. Manju Banerjee
    Faculty Associate: Kevin Keith, M.A.  
    Research Associate: Dr. Zachary Alstad

    Project Description 

    Since online learning is a vast and growing enterprise around the world, this research has the potential to help colleges and universities design online courses that work better for students who learn differently. Currently, many online classes use an asynchronous format, wherein students will individually comment on material and participate in a relatively unconnected way. It is not yet clear as to who this works for and why. This need for further research is part of the rationale for this study. 

    Dr. Ibrahim Dahlstrom-Hakki, a Senior Academic Researcher at Landmark College Institute for Research and Training (LCIRT), and Dr. Manju Banerjee, Vice President for Educational Research and Innovation and Director of LCIRT, lead this three-year research initiative. Kevin Keith, Landmark College mathematics and computer science professor, and the rest of the College’s math department provide instructional support. Research Associate Zachary Alstad adds data collection and analysis support to this study.



    National Science Foundation logo (image of earth with letters NSF)This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1420198

    Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.


  • Interdisciplinary Coaching as a Nexus for Transforming How Institutions Support Undergraduates in STEM (iCAN)

    Landmark College and the University of Central Florida (UCF) were recently awarded a $249,784 National Science Foundation (NSF-IUSE:EHR) grant entitled “Interdisciplinary Coaching as a Nexus for Transforming How Institutions Support Undergraduates in STEM (iCAN).”


    Title: “Interdisciplinary Coaching As a Nexus for Transforming how Institutions Support Undergraduates in STEM (iCAN)” National Science Foundation logo
    Funder: National Science Foundation
    Award Number: 1505202
    Award Amount: $249,784
    Funding Period: 2015 – 2017
    PI: Dr. Matthew Marino
    Co-PIs: Dr. Brian Moore, Dr. Eleazar Vasquez, Dr. Manju Banerjee

    Project Description

    A significant need exists to increase the number of STEM majors from underrepresented populations who are entering the STEM workforce. Nationally, fewer than 40% of undergraduates who intend to major in a STEM field complete a STEM degree. Traditional institutional reform efforts focus on system-level changes in instructor behaviors and supports. Unfortunately, current institutional reform efforts have not had an immediate wide-scale impact on the attrition rate of STEM majors. This project will examine how practicing in-service teachers can use mobile technologies to coach undergraduates in STEM majors who have executive functioning difficulties (e.g., higher order cognitive abilities such as planning, problem resolution, and mental flexibility) so that they can successfully complete introductory STEM coursework.

    The “Interdisciplinary Coaching As a Nexus for Transforming how Institutions Support Undergraduates in STEM (iCAN)” is an exploratory project that will occur over two years. iCAN is a hybrid model of supports that relies on team coaching and mobile technologies (e.g., tablets & smartphones) to help undergraduates achieve executive function abilities that are critical to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) success. The project team will systematically investigate how a successful model for enhancing undergraduate STEM learning and persistence at Landmark, a small rural college in Vermont, can be migrated to the University of Central Florida, which is the second largest university in the United States. The project benefits both the graduate student teachers and undergraduate STEM majors. It also provides practicing teachers with insights regarding how to better prepare students to be successful in STEM majors at the undergraduate level. If this program proves as effective as expected, it will enhance STEM learning, persistence, and entry into the STEM workforce for all undergraduate students, particularly those with executive function deficits.


    Finding from the project will be available for dissemination as soon as they are available.

    Project Team

    Dr. Matthew Marino

    Headshot of Dr. Matthew Marino

    Dr. Manju Banerjee

    Headshot of Dr. Manju Banerjee

    Dr. Brian Moore

    Headshot of Dr. Brian Moore

    Dr. Eleazar Vasquez

    Headshot of Dr. Eleazar Vasquez


    National Science Foundation logoThis material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1505202

    Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  • Using TinkerPlots as a Tool for Teaching Statistics (2011 – 14)

    Dr. Michelle Bower and Dr. Ibrahim Dahlstrom-Hakki stand in front of posterLandmark College investigated the effectiveness of TinkerPlots (software developed as part of NSF grant DRL-9818946) as a tool in helping students with a diagnosed LD develop an understanding of key concepts in statistics. The goal of this project was to increase the number of students with an LD who successfully complete introductory statistics courses and who develop a strong enough grasp of the concepts to consider furthering their education in a STEM field. This project is intended as a demonstration project and proof that it is possible to increase the number and diversity of students who can successfully understand and work with statistical data and hence pursue careers in data-driven STEM fields.

    Title: “Investigating the Effectiveness of TinkerPlots in Helping Students with Learning Disabilities Understand Statistical Concepts.National Science Foundation logo image earth with letters NSF
    Funder: National Science Foundation
    Award Number 1128948
    Award Amount: $70,936
    Funding Period: 2011 – 2014
    PI: Dr. Ibrahim Dahlstrom-Hakki
    Faculty Associates: Dr. Michelle Bower, Frank Klucken

    The approach was pilot tested in introductory statistics courses at Landmark College in Putney, VT, as well as comparable level courses at Holyoke Community College in Holyoke, MA. The students at Landmark College consisted exclusively of individuals with a diagnosis that affects their learning, whereas the students at Holyoke Community College served as a comparison group reflecting a more typical student profile, one that includes students with disabilities and other conditions that influence learning (e.g. first-generation college status, minority status, primary language other than English).

    Project Description

    Tinkerplots graph with colorful barsIn many STEM fields, the ability to understand statistics and perform data analysis is an essential component. In fact, today’s scientists are increasingly expected to be expert statisticians. This makes developing an understanding of statistical concepts and being able to truly comprehend and work with a dataset essential to the successful pursuit of many STEM careers. These skills are not merely important in order to pass statistical courses that are often gatekeepers in scientific STEM academic programs, but they are an essential part of the daily work of most scientists, engineers, network administrators, and others in the STEM arena.

    Statistics is becoming such a critical component of our daily lives that the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics proposes introducing statistical concepts to students as early as first grade (NCTM, 2000). Unfortunately, most adults tend to form incorrect interpretations of statistical data (Konold, 1995) and often rely or shortcuts or heuristics rather than sound statistical reasoning (Kahneman, Slovic, & Tversky, 1982). Given these findings, one would be correct in deducing that students generally struggle in traditional statistical classrooms and often have trouble reasoning about aggregate data. However, advances in technology have allowed for the development of tools that allow us to quickly produce, manipulate, and represent large amounts of data. One particular tool, TinkerPlots (Konold & Miller, 2005), has shown promise in enhancing the understanding of students ranging from elementary school to graduate school (Paparistodemou & Meletiou-Mavrotheris, 2008; Lesh, Ader, & Bas, 2010).

    Project Team

    Dahlstrom-Hakki holds a Ph.D. in Cognitive Psychology from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. He is a Research and Education Specialist in the Landmark College Institute for Research and Training (LCIRT). Bower is the Chair of the Mathematics and Computer Science Department. She received a Ph.D. in Mathematics Education from Illinois State University. Frank Klucken, a member of the Mathematics & Computer Science Department at Landmark College, has also presented on this project at conferences and is a member of the research team. Klucken holds an M.A.T. in Teaching Using Internet Technologies from The Graduate Center of Marlboro College.


    Dr. Ibrahim Dahlstrom-Hakki and Dr. Michelle Bower presented findings from this research on Tuesday, February 4, 2014, at the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative Annual Meeting in New Orleans. The presentation was titled Making Data Accessible to Diverse Populations of Students. Dahlstrom-Hakki and Bower are continuing to analyze their data and are in the process of preparing a manuscript for publication.

    Dahlstrom-Hakki notes, “We believe the approach we used tends to work better not only for our students but for the general student population, and the data backs that up.” In the courses that he and Bower tested, students interacted with real-world data as soon as possible. They were encouraged to develop gut feelings and intuitions about the data, then to transition those gut feelings and intuitions into formal statistical understanding. “Students learn better and better understand statistical concepts when they engage in real data collection and analysis,” Bower adds.

    National Science Foundation logo--image of earth with letters NSFThis material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1128948

    Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.


  • Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) for First-Year Students with Learning Disabilities project

    Students with learning disabilities and learning difficulties (LD) too often fail in higher education depriving society of innovative thinkers capable of enormous accomplishments. A cornerstone of Landmark College’s work is to address the wellbeing of students. In 2014, the College introduced Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) within its First-Year (FY) Studies curriculum, and anecdotal accounts showed positive results. The proposed expansion of the SMART project will allow Landmark College to research both wellness and academic outcomes for first-year students entering directly from high school, as compared with transfer students. It is hypothesized that the SMART program will increase student resiliency and lead to academic outcomes as students gain skills necessary for success.

  • Cognitive Training with “Project Evo”

    Cognitive brain training has received a great deal of attention recently as several companies market games designed to improve brain Screenshot of Project Evo showing yellow avatar floating among icebergs with the word CHALLENGE at the top and the words TAPPING, STEERING, and MULTI at the bottomhealth and cognitive function. While this type of intervention shows promise, much of what is currently available in the market has not been adequately vetted and many marketing claims have not been clinically validated. The Landmark College Institute for Research and Training (LCIRT) has therefore been interested in researching the validity of the most promising interventions in this field. Following a successful pilot project this past year, LCIRT is conducting a follow-up study to explore the effectiveness of “Project Evo,” a game designed to improve cognitive function. “Project Evo” is based on “Neuro-racer,” a prototype game developed by the Adam Gazzaley Lab at UCSF. Research at Landmark College this coming year will investigate whether students with LD, ADHD, and/or ASD show significant gains on measures of attention and academic performance as a result of a 4 week intervention using “Project Evo.”

  • Advising as an intervention for students with ADHD

    An innovative approach to academic advising is proposed as an intervention for college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The advising model proposed uses a student-centered developmental approach that included specific elements of coaching, such as open ended questioning, creating a safe space for students’ difficulties with self-regulation, and holding students accountability for their actions. Five students with ADHD were tracked weekly over a semester, as they met with their advisor to provide added insight on this hybrid model of advising. Overall student perception and advisor perception regarding academic progress, commitment to academic goals, and progress towards outcomes were examined to determine the efficacy of such an approach for college students with ADHD. Given the ubiquitous nature of academic advising on college campuses, such a hybrid model of advising can have significant impact on graduation and retention of some students with ADHD, who might otherwise drop out of college, despite necessary competencies for postsecondary success.

    This project was a collaboration between LCIRT’s Dr. Manju Banerjee and Landmark College academic advisor Kathy D’Alessio. Publication of the results from this project are scheduled to appear in the Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability (JPED).

  • Sleep Study

    In partnership with University of North Carolina, Charlotte—Dr. Jane Gaultney and Dr. Hannah Peach. Survey of sleep habits and patterns over two years of college students with and without LD. This project started in March 2015.

  • Mindset Study

    In partnership with Director of Short-Term Programs, this research investigated the effect of a mindset shift intervention on High School Summer Program students’ perception of mindset flexibility, hard work, and constructive criticism.

  • Exercise and Achievement Landmark College students playing soccer on quad

    This is project examined the potential effects of exercise on cognitive and academic achievement. The project involves testing students in a battery of cognitive executive function tasks, and measuring academic outcomes, before and after a vigorous exercise regime, compared to a group not as engaged in physical activity.

  • Innovative Apps Contest for Landmark College Students (2014)

    Student outdoors looking at cell phone

    LCIRT was awarded a grant from Learning Disabilities Foundation of America (LDFA) to sponsor a contest fostering collaborations between students and faculty around innovative use of apps for learning. The goal of the Apps Club contest was to identify best practices for mobile device and apps use in the classroom as informed by a unique partnership between students and faculty.

    This contest was open only to Landmark College students. Students initiated the partnership by identifying a receptive faculty member and demonstrating iPad apps that they were currently using in their academic or social life. Faculty offered pedagogical knowledge, while students provided insight on how these technologies help them to learn. Together they explored potential classroom applications that scaffold the learning needs of students who learn differently.

    Each student-faculty team submitted a proposal. A Contest Review Committee reviewed the proposals and announced the winners in December 2014:

    • First place, $200 each: Ashlee Charette and Jeanette Landin. AVID Accounting, to help students understand the purpose and process of using T-accounts in accounting class through the use of sounds, colors, and movement of objects
    • Second place, $150 each: Stanley Roth and Bradford Towle. Study Blast, to help students study for tests using adaptive learning, avatars, and a game format
    • Third place, $100 each: Bailey McGinn and Norma Willingham. Never Alone, a mobile app to let people with LD know when there is someone else with LD in the area, to facilitate connections and community
    • First runner up: Sam Ripper and Rebecca Matte. Efficient Study Tracker, to help students track study time and behaviors to increase efficiency and reduce distractions
    • Honorable mention: Tyler Haarman and Cindy Tolman. Periodic Study Buddy, to help students study for chemistry class through better knowledge of the periodic table of elements
  • In just one short decade, mobile technology has evolved and revolutionized the way students engage, interact, and learn. What has made this revolution both exciting is the exponential proliferation of apps. For students with learning disabilities (LD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), apps provide a unique opportunity to eliminate access barriers, because they are ubiquitous and prolific. Apps can be installed in seconds, be accessed any place and anytime, and offer immediate solutions for academic learning and coursework.

    E-learning initiatives and app technologies are an important part of postsecondary education. Unfortunately, limited research is available on the effectiveness of apps for students with disabilities, due to the fact that they are still a new and emerging technology. Landmark College has been on the leading edge of technology research and innovation in the field of learning disabilities. Researchers from LCIRT, in particular, have been pioneering important research efforts to enhance educators’ understanding of new app technologies and to gauge students’ usage of academic apps at Landmark College.

    At the 2013 International Dyslexia Association conference, Dr. Manju Banerjee and Dr. Sapna Prasad of LCIRT presented an app evaluation tool informed by the principles of Universal Design for Instruction. Dr. Banerjee and Dr. Prasad are now expanding their research to better understand which apps and mobile devices students with LD, ADHD, and ASD use for their coursework and academic learning, and the process by which students choose apps. They have created an Apps and Mobile Devices Survey and are collecting feedback from students at Landmark College who have firsthand experience using apps for their coursework.

    This survey will help researchers identify the most user-friendly and effective features of apps designed for note-taking, reading and organization; and increase the understanding of the broader impacts that app technology can have on the academic progress of students with LD, ADHD, and ASD. Another opportune outcome of this research is an assessment of Landmark College students’ technology preferences as the College continues to march forward and explore the world of eLearning for those who learn differently. 

  • In 2014, Landmark College Institute for Research and Training (LCIRT) received an internal grant to host a focus group of expert evaluators and diagnosticians for LD, ADHD, and ASD from around the Northeast region. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility and value of evaluations that are more deliberately customized to the setting demands of postsecondary education for which a student needs accommodations or strategic recommendations.

    Nationally recognized evaluators representing three states shared their expertise and insight on issues including:

    • Understanding the disability documentation needs of current and emerging populations of postsecondary students with LD, ADHD, and ASD
    • Evaluating the feasibility of an innovative “Learning Profiles Assessment” that expands and adapts traditional neuropsychology/educational testing for better informed decision-making
    • Suggestions for assessment resources and practices at Landmark College, including recommendations for assessment information for prospective and current students and families

    The focus group, consisting of seven external evaluators and five internal Landmark College faculty, researchers, and administrators, met on May 23, 2014, in Putney, VT.

  • Dr. Manju Banerjee and Dr. Sapna Prasad received a grant from The Alliance for Access to Computing Careers (AccessComputing) in April 2013 to host a two-day Capacity Building Institute (CBI) with the goal of promoting cross-campus collaboration to increase the number of students with invisible disabilities successfully pursuing higher degrees and careers in computing fields. 

    AccessComputing works to increase the participation of people with disabilities in computing and IT fields by increasing the capacity of postsecondary computing departments to fully include students with disabilities in courses and programs. Students with invisible disabilities such as learning disabilities (LD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are highly underrepresented in their attainment of computing degrees and IT careers. 

    You can learn more about this project by reading the published proceedings from the CBI.

    This CBI, titled “Pathways to Success for Students with Invisible Disabilities,” provided a forum for postsecondary faculty from the computer science and engineering fields, disability service providers, and instructional technology personnel from multiple colleges and universities to:

    • Discuss access challenges, share successful practices, and identify systemic change initiatives
    • Increase their understanding of the profiles of students with LD, ADHD, and ASD
    • Expand their collective knowledge of best practices for students with LD, ADHD, and ASD, including strategies for applying Universal Design (UD) principles to instruction
    • Form collaborations with each other to coordinate their efforts to develop strategies and the capacity of their institutions to serve such underrepresented groups of students

    The CBI was comprised of individual presentations by recognized leaders in the field, including Dr. Richard Ladner and Dr. Sheryl Burgstahler, and group discussions which offered participants greater understanding of how disability support services, faculty, and information technology personnel can work together to support students with invisible disabilities.

  • Jill Hart and two students from University of Maryland, Baltimore County are looking at a lap top screen.

    Students with invisible disabilities are significantly underrepresented in careers within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. To what extent can interest in STEM be encouraged by providing students hands-on experience in the STEM fields? Landmark College partnered with the University of Maryland, Baltimore County and Southern Illinois University to offer students an opportunity to actively learn and engage in the type of work conducted within the Computer Science field. Two workshops were held at Landmark College to introduce students to Human-Centered Computing (HCC) methods, electronic tablets and computer programming. Participating in such workshops provides students the opportunity to see themselves as designers or programmers and has the potential to raise their interest levels and their self-efficacy about a future career in a STEM field.

    Project Descriptions

    AccessComputing Minigrant 1: Participatory Design for Accessible Apps and Games (10/1/11 – 9/30/12)

    Landmark College, in collaboration with the Information Systems Department at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC), held a one-day workshop in December 2011 on HCC methods and participatory design for Landmark students. Students had the opportunity to join a participatory design team, interact with applications (apps) prototypes created by UMBC graduate students, contribute their feedback, and learn how to make design modifications to meet user requirements.

    AccessComputing Minigrant 2: Electronic Tablets & Computer Programming Workshop (1/1/12 – 12/31/12)

    Electronic tablets offer a variety of accessibility options for diverse audiences, and applications (apps) that have the potential to help struggling students become independent learners. A two-day workshop was held at Landmark College in February 2012, in collaboration with the Computer Science Department at Southern Illinois University (SIU), to provide students at LC the opportunity to learn how to develop electronic tablet applications intended to meet their individual learning needs, as well as to become aware of the programming tools used in the computer science field. We explored whether Landmark College’s Master Notebook organizational tool could be replicated in whole or in part by existing or future apps, and whether Quorum, a programming language developed at SIU, will benefit students with invisible disabilities.


    We are currently in the process of collecting and/or analyzing the data from these workshops.

    This project was funded by grants from the AT&T Foundation and the Alliance for Access to Computing Careers (AccessComputing), which is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the Broadening Participation in Computing (BPC) program of the Directorate for Computer and Information Sciences and Engineering (CISE) (grant #CNS-0540615, CNS-0837508 and CNS-1042260).

  • This implementation research project aims to explore the use of a Universally Designed online adaptive learning platform to meet the learning needs of a neurodiverse population of learners. 

    Adaptive learning promises to deliver personalized learning to meet the individual needs of every unique student. This promise, if fulfilled, will address a major issue of accessibility for a growing number of students for whom traditional online education has not been effective. Courses piloted by this project will be developed and delivered by Landmark College faculty members. If successful, this project will form the basis for the creation of high quality online content accessible to diverse populations of students in a cost effective manner. Furthermore, this research will lay the groundwork for collaboration on a grant aimed at scaling up this model of online education.

    To learn more about how adaptive learning works, view a demonstration of SGL’s Adaptive Learning Management System.

  • In March 2009, the Landmark College Institute for Research and Training (LCIRT) completed a Demonstration, Enrichment, and Information Dissemination grant from the National Science Foundation’s Research in Disabilities Education (RDE) grant program. This award was used to create universally-designed online algebra learning resources for use by students in developmental algebra courses, focused on improving access and usability for students with learning disabilities. Additional grant activities included developing companion learning strategies to optimize the use of the online learning resources, training faculty at four two-year institutions to use the learning resources and strategies in developmental math courses, evaluating student outcomes and changes in faculty attitudes toward students with LD; and disseminating the results. Since mastering mathematical concepts is crucial to learning in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, improving math instruction for students with LD is hypothesized to improve the achievement and confidence of those students. Designing effective and usable tools to enhance STEM learning for students with disabilities has the potential to achieve widespread impact.

    Project Description

    NSF RDE Grant HRD-0726252: Universal Design in College Algebra: Customizing Learning Resources for Two Year Students with Learning Disabilities

    In order to pursue postsecondary education and careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and computing, students must be able to master fundamental mathematical principles that serve as part of the foundation of these fields. Given the importance of mathematics as a gateway to advanced degrees and cutting-edge career opportunities, it is important to investigate methods which can facilitate learning and understanding of math concepts for students with learning disabilities and attention disorders (collectively referred to here as “LD”). The overarching goal of this project, UD Algebra, was to increase interest and confidence in learning math for students with LD, thereby leading to more students with LD succeeding in additional STEM courses and pursuing STEM careers. A secondary goal of this project was to increase educators’ awareness and improve educators’ attitudes about the potential for students with LD to succeed in STEM.

    To achieve these goals, the team began by evaluating the accessibility and usability of existing free online algebra learning resources (LRs) for use by students with LD. The was then able to create universally-designed algebra LRs that are accessible to students with LD along with companion learning strategies to optimize the use of those LRs. These resources and strategies are freely available through the project’s website. Finally, the team trained faculty members at four institutions and testing the aforementioned resources and strategies at each of those institutions.


    The materials, resources, and strategies developed as part of this grant are made freely available on the project website located at

    Data from students (both with and without LD) at four institutions showed that students who had used the developed LRs had more confidence in their math ability and a more positive attitude towards math than those who had not.

  • LCIRT was awarded a grant from the National Science Foundation’s Advanced Technological Education (ATE) grant program for a two-year project entitled Improving Access to Technological Education Programs and Careers for Community College Students with Learning Disabilities (LD).

    Visit the Access Tech Careers website for more information.

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